ISSN 0862-5468 (Print), ISSN 1804-5847 (online) 

Ceramics-Silikáty 63, (1) 110 - 123 (2019)

Koutník Petr, Soukup Aleš, Bezucha Petr, Šafář Jan, Hájková Pavlína, Čmelík Jiří
Unipetrol Centre for Research and Education, Revoluční 1521/28, 40001 Ústí nad Labem, Czech Republic

Keywords: Kaolin, Kaolinite, Claystone, Geopolymer, Rheology

One kaolin and two kaolinitic claystones were characterised (XRD, XRF, FTIR, TG, SEM, MIP), dehydrated at 750 °C, finely ground and mixed with an alkali activator in weight ratios of 55:80, 55:75, 60:70, 65:65, 70:60 and 75:55. Geopolymer binders were then prepared by water addition up to an invariable content of 34 wt%. The binders were finally mixed with quartz sand in a weight ratio of 40:60. The differences in the properties between the two types of clay materials, the changes in these properties due to dehydration and milling, and the impact of the observed differences on the properties of the geopolymer binders (dynamic viscosity, pore size distribution, colour shade) and filled geopolymers (flexural strength, compressive strength, elastic modulus) were investigated. The kaolinitic claystones had a morphology different from the kaolin, characterised by smaller kaolinite plates, significantly lower pore volumes with average pore diameters and a higher impurities content that caused a more intense colour compared to the kaolin. The above-mentioned differences remained unchanged after thermal and mechanical treatment of the starting clay materials. The geopolymer binders prepared from the calcined and milled kaolinitic claystones were darker in colour and had a significantly lower dynamic viscosity (approximately three times) compared to the geopolymer binders prepared from the kaolin. The dynamic viscosity decreased with the decreasing activator content, while the volume and pore size increased. The mechanical properties of all the prepared geopolymers were excellent (compressive strength >50 MPa, bending strength >7.9 MPa and elastic modulus >15 GPa) up to a ratio of meta-kaolinite component/alkali activator of 1:1.

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doi: 10.13168/cs.2019.0003
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