ISSN 0862-5468 (Print), ISSN 1804-5847 (online) 

Ceramics-Silikáty 61, (2) 119 - 126 (2017)

Hujová Miroslava, Vernerová Miroslava
Laboratory of Inorganic Materials, joint workplace of the University of Chemistry and Technology Prague, Technická 5, 166 28 Prague 6, and the Institute of Rock Structure and Mechanics of the CAS, v.v.i., V Holešovičkách 41, 182 09 Prague 8, Czech Republic

Keywords: Glass melting, Sodium sulphate, Chemical reactions, Gas evolution, Dissolution, Fining, Foaming, Bubble nucleation

Glass melting is significantly influenced by two processes: the dissolution of particles and the fining of glass. Because these processes are time- and energy-consuming in industry, fining agents are used. Although much literature has been reported about the use of fining agents, no extensive overview of such literature has yet been published. In this paper, we provide such a review, targeting articles that describe the influence of fining agents on (i) the dissolution of particles, (ii) the bubble nucleation and removal, (iii) colour of glass at reduced melting conditions, and (iv) the foaming of glass. We cover the history of fining agent usage from the earliest research in the field to the most recent cutting-edge discoveries. The advantages and disadvantages of all the traditional fining agents are described, with attention paid to the most widely used agent, sodium sulphate. In addition, sodium sulphate is considered as a surface-active compound and colouring substance. Furthermore, we include the influence of redox conditions on the process of fining. We believe that our review provides an ideal introduction to the use of fining agents, both for researchers and industry professionals.

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doi: 10.13168/cs.2017.0006
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