ISSN 0862-5468 (Print), ISSN 1804-5847 (online) 

Ceramics-Silikáty 64, (4) 447 - 459 (2020)

Jusoh Wan Nurshamimi Wan 1, Matori Khamirul Amin 1,2, Zaid Mohd Hafiz Mohd 1, Zainuddin Norhazlin 3, Khiri Mohammad Zulhasif Ahmad 2, Rahman Nadia Asyikin Abdul 1, Jalil Rohaniah Abdul 1, Kul Esra 4
1 Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2 Material Synthesis and Characterization Laboratory, Institute of Advanced Technology, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4 Department of Prosthodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Ataturk University, 25030 Erzurum, Turkey

Keywords: Apatite-mullite glass ceramics, CaF₂, Clam shell, Heat treatment, Soda lime silicate glass

An apatite-mullite glass ceramics composition derived from clam shell (CS) and soda lime silicate (SLS) glass has been fabricated from a heat treatment process of composition, [xCaF₂⋅(45−x)SLS⋅15CS⋅20Al₂O₃⋅20P₂O₅], where x is 5, 10, 15 and 20 (wt%). The result concluded that the Ca and Si elements were found in the CS and SLS glass respectively as a major weight composition, thereby promoting the use of waste materials in the manufacture of glass ceramic samples. Besides, the CaF2 addition lowers the glass transition temperature (Tg) and crystallisation temperature (Tc) of the glass composition. The density and percentage of the linear shrinkage of the samples differs with the addition of CaF₂ and various heat treatment temperatures. For the structural properties' analysis, the formation of fluorapatite with a needle-like microstructure and mullite phase was enhanced with a higher CaF₂ content, while the growth of the anorthite phase was observed to occur at a higher heat treatment temperature. Generally, the addition of a high CaF₂ content with the help of heat treatment in apatite-mullite glass ceramics composition greatly promotes the crystallisation of the fluorapatite phase, which is crucial for denture glass ceramics.

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doi: 10.13168/cs.2020.0032
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