ISSN 0862-5468 (Print), ISSN 1804-5847 (online) 

Ceramics-Silikáty 67, (1) 81 - 86 (2023)

Challoob Doaa Abbood 1, Saleh Ali Taha 1, Alshemary Ammar Z. 2, 3, Muhammed Yasser , 4, Cardakli Ismail Seckin 5
1 Department of Chemistry, College of Science, University of Misan, Misan, Iraq.
2 Department of Chemistry, College of Science and Technology, Wenzhou-Kean University, Wenzhou, 325060, China.
3 Biomedical Engineering Department, Al-Mustaqbal University College, Hillah, Babil 51001, Iraq.
4 Aeronautical Techniques Engineering, AL-Farahidi University, Baghdad, Iraq.
5 Department of Metallurgical and Materials Engineering, Atatürk University, Erzurum, 25240, Turkey

Keywords: Carp fish, Biological hydroxyapatite, Characterisations, Bioactivity

Due to low production costs and safety concerns, fish bones are the most common alternative source of Hydroxyapatite (HA). Furthermore, fish processing companies pollute the environment because they throw away a great deal of fish waste. This study successfully extracted biological HA from the fish bones of common carp (Cyprinus carpio). The bones were washed and boiled in hot water before being calcined for two hours at 200 °C, 400 °C, 600 °C, 800 °C, 900 °C, and 1000 °C. The extracted powders were studied using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). The results showed that the HA phase forms crystals when the fish bones are heated to 900 °C. The crystallinity and crystallite size increased significantly as the heating treatment increased. The main functional hydroxyl and phosphate groups are found in the HA structure. The shape of the extracted HA particles was globular. The in vitro dissolution and bioactivity of the biological HA were evaluated using simulated body fluid (SBF) for 1, 3, 7, and 14 days at 37 °C. After the first day in the SBF, the rate of degradation was at its highest, which then gradually decreased. The thickness of the apatite layer significantly increased with a prolonged incubation period. There is hope that biological HA may be useful in the biomedical field.

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doi: 10.13168/cs.2023.0005
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