ISSN 0862-5468 (Print), ISSN 1804-5847 (online) 

Ceramics-Silikáty 54, (3) 241 - 247 (2010)

Ravelingien Matthieu 1,2, Mullens Steven 1, Luyten Jan 1, Meynen Vera 3,1, Vinck Evi 4,1, Vervaet Chris 2, Remon Jean Paul 2
1 Materials Technology, VITO NV (Flemish Institute for Technological Research), Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol, Belgium
2 Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Technology, Department of Pharmaceutics, Ghent University, Harelbekestraat 72, 9000 Ghent, Belgium
3 Laboratory of Adsorption and Catalysis, Department of Chemistry, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium
4 SIBAC (Spectroscopy in Biophysics and Catalysis), Department of Physics, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium

Alkali- and heat-treated titanium surfaces have earlier shown bioactivity. However, sufficient attention has to be paid to the sensitivity of porous titanium substrates to oxidation and nitriding during heat treatment under air. Therefore, in the present study, alkali-treated titanium samples were heat-treated under air, argon flow or vacuum. They were extensively characterized by contact angle measurements, diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectroscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM), thin film X-ray diffraction (TF-XRD), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and glow discharge optical emission spectroscopy (GDOES). The in vitro bioactivity was evaluated in simulated body fluid (SBF). All heat treatments under various atmospheres turned out to be detrimental for apatite deposition. They led to the thermal decomposition of the dense sodium titanate basis near the interface with the titanium substrate into atmospheredepending forms of TiyOz and sublimated Na₂O. Consequently, less exchangeable sodium ions remained available. This points to the importance of the ion exchange capacity of the sodium titanate layer for in vitro bioactivity.

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